Japan has a population of 126 billion. The largest age group is 25 to 54 at 37%. Japans population is ageing and at the same time decreasing. The birthrate is 1.44 and life expectancy is 84 years of age. Japan has a multipayer system that works like a single-payer system. Japan’s insurance plans are mostly private and the Ministry of Health and Welfare determines which treatments and drugs the insurance plans have to pay for and negotiates the prices that insurance has to pay.